Blunt Trauma usually occurs when the eye is hit by a large, non-penetrating object such as a baseball, fist, or airbag.
Corneal Abrasions are scratches to the front surface of the eye. Treatment includes antibiotic ointment and sometimes patching until the abrasion heals.
Corneal abrasion stained with fluorescein
Traumatic Uveitis is inflammation within the anterior chamber secondary to blunt trauma. Topical Steroids are used to reverse the inflammation.
Hyphema is bleeding in the anterior chamber of the eye. Steroids, dilating drops, and a shield are used to facilitate healing.
Ruptured Globe occurs when the eye wall becomes ruptured. Surgical closure of the wound is necessary to save the eye.
Orbital Wall Fractures are breaks in the thin bone that surround the eye. Surgical repair is indicated when muscle entrapment causes double vision or when the eye is pushed backward.
Choroidal Rupture is tearing or splitting of the choroid, the deep layer beneath the retina. Blood often collects beneath the retina. Scarring usually develops in the site of choroidal rupture. When the macula is involved, vision is usually decreased.
Macular Holes sometimes develop following blunt trauma. Vitrectomy is necessary to close hole and restore vision.
Traumatic macular hole
Penetrating Trauma occurs when an object penetrates the eye. CT scan is usually indicated to determine if a foreign body remains in the eye. Removal of the foreign body with forceps or magnet is performed. Closure of the lacerated eye is necessary to preserve the eye integrity and to restore vision.
Penetrating trauma is a potentially blinding event. Thorough evaluation, medical management, and surgical repair are necessary to restore as much vision as possible and prevent loss of the eye.