The retina is the nerve layer that lines the inside back wall of the eye. Blood is supplied to the retina by the retinal artery. The retinal artery enters the eye through the optic nerve, before branching into smaller blood vessels and eventually into microscopic capillaries. Blood is collected by retinal veins which exit the eye through the optic nerve. Retinal veins are thicker and darker than retinal arteries.
Located in the center of the retina is the sensitive macula. The macula provides us with our central vision. When we look directly at an object, the macula allows us to see the fine detail. This sharp straight ahead vision is necessary for driving, reading, recognizing faces, and doing detailed work such as sewing. The majority of the retina lies outside of the macula. The retina outside the macula provides us with our peripheral, or side vision.